Stuart Broad will also miss the five-match series that begins in Bristol on 25th August as he prepares for knee surgery, and will consult a specialist later this week.
While Hales has a Twenty20 International century to his name, he has yet to play an ODI, although he was added as cover for Alastair Cook during the series with Sri Lanka earlier this sumer.
Michael Carberry, who opened with Cook during that series, misses out against India, as does all-rounder Tim Bresnan to accommodate Ben Stokes' return to the squad.
"With the ICC Cricket World Cup now less than six months away our focus over the coming months switches to identifying our strongest possible squad for that competition," National Selector James Whitaker said.
"However this is an important series in its own right and we have selected 15 players who we believe will perform well against an Indian side with a strong one day record.
"This series presents an opportunity for players to build on their international and domestic form and demonstrate that they have the ability to win games of cricket for England.
"With plenty of domestic limited overs cricket still to be played this season and a series against Sri Lanka in November before finalising our World Cup squad there are still opportunities for us to consider a number of players who have missed out on selection."
England ODI squad: Alastair Cook (captain), Moeen Ali, James Anderson, Gary Ballance, Ian Bell, Jos Buttler, Steven Finn, Harry Gurney, Alex Hales, Chris Jordan, Eoin Morgan, Joe Root, Ben Stokes, James Tredwell, Chris Woakes
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