In the 2016 season, the 37-year-old played six matches and scored 388 runs at an average close to 78 including a century and two fifties and overall he averages 61 for the club in 14 appearances spread across three seasons in 2013, 2015 and 2016.
Apart from being available for Middlesex in 13 County Championship matches next season, he will also play for the club in all eight Royal London One-Day Cup games.
Middlesex managing director Angus Fraser said the decision to sign Voges for the upcoming season was a straightforward decision.
"Inviting Adam back was a simple decision," said Fraser.
"On each of the occasions he has been with Middlesex he has been outstanding in every way and he is just the sort of character I want playing for our club.
"In the past two seasons, selection for Australia has reduced the amount of time he has spent with us but this season we expect to see far more of him.
"We look forward to having him available for virtually all our Specsavers County Championship matches and our entire Royal London One-Day Cup campaign."
Middlesex will begin their title defence with a clash against Hampshire in Southampton on 14th April.
© Cricket World 2017