Upul Tharanga, who was left out ahead of Sri Lanka's third One-Day International against South Africa last month, also returns as Dilruwan Perera, Kushal Perera and Kithuruwan Vithanage miss out on inclusion in a 15-man squad for the first two matches.
Dinesh Chandimal has been rewarded for a good run of form with Sri Lanka A, where he scored 207 runs in three innings in England, with a recall.
Prasad comes in to replace the injured Suranga Lakmal and Randiv is joined in the squad by leg-spinner Seekkuge Prasanna, meaning that Sachithra Senanayake and Ajantha Mendis have been left out.
Randiv has played 28 ODIs, the last of them against Australia in August 2011.
Prasad, who has played important roles in recent Test series wins over England and Pakistan, played in the second ODI against England in Chester-le-Street but has not featured since.
With both Lakmal and Shaminda Eranga out through injury, he returns to the squad as Sri Lanka look to carry over the sort of form that saw them win the Test series 2-0 in to the ODI format.
Hambantota, Colombo and Dambulla host the three ODIs on 23rd, 27th and 31st August respectively.
Sri Lanka ODI squad: Angelo Mathews (captain), Lahiru Thirimanne (vice-captain), Dinesh Chandimal, Tillakaratne Dilshan, Rangana Herath, Mahela Jayawardene, Nuwan Kulasekara, Lasith Malinga, Thisara Perera, Dhammika Prasad, Seekkuge Prasanna, Ashan Priyanjan, Suraj Randiv, Kumar Sangakkara, Upul Tharanga
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